Standartların siyahısı

RIVERS, LAKES AND RESERVOIRS OF AZERBAIJAN REPUBLIC

 

The territory of Azerbaijan Republic is situated on the east part of South Caucasus and the west part of Caspian Sea, between 38024’ and 41054’ north latitudes, 44046’ and 50056’ longitudes.
The area of Azerbaijan Republic’s territory consists of 86,6 thousand km2, the 5,2  km2 of it belongs to Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, which is the part of Azerbaijan Republic.
Generally, Azerbaijan is the mountain country with different and complex relief forms. Along with high mountain range there observes plains, low-lands, depressions in this territory. The absolute height of the territory varies between 4480 m (major Caucasus, Bazarduzu) and -27 m (the present level of Caspian Sea), but the average height is 657 m.
There are 4 native regions in Azerbaijan. They are: Major Caucasus, Minor Caucasus (including Nakhchivan AR’s territory), Lenkoran and Kur-Araz low-land. In the territory of Azerbaijan there observes 8 of 11 climate types, existing over the Earth – from semi deserts and arid grass lands to mountain tundra climate types.
The average annual air temperature is 90– 100 C in mountain and foothill and 140-150C in plain zones. The precipitation has been disseminated disproportionally: there observes that the quantity of precipitation is 1600-1800 mm in Lehkoran native region and 200-350 mm in Absheron.
The difference of physical-geographical condition, the peculiarity of the relief and the climate, the human activity define the different evaluation of the hydrophysical network. The main water objects, belonging to hydrographical network – rivers, lakes and reservoirs have been disseminated over the native regions of republic disproportionally. For example, the stream density varies from 0,20 km/km2 (Absheron- Gobustan) to 0,84 km/km2 (Lenkoran), but the average density consists of 0,36 km/km2.

RIVERS

The stream of republic is consisted of 8350 rivers, the length of 2 of them is more 500 km, 22 rivers – 101-500 km, 324 rivers  - 11-100 km, the length of great part of rivers is to 10 km.
Generally, rivers of Azerbaijan Republic belong to Caspian Sea basin. They are divided into three basins:
1. Rivers of Kur river basin (left and right tributaries of Kur river);
2. Rivers of Araz river basin (left tributary of Araz river);
3. Rivers, falling directly into Caspian Sea.
On taking into account that the height condition of the watershed area of rivers plays an important role in the forming of the surface run-off on the rivers of this territory are divided into two groups:
1. Rivers with high watershed area - the height of the watershed of these rivers is more than 2500-3000 m.
2. Rivers with low watershed area – the height of these watersheds is not more than 2500 m.
All of constantly falling rivers and partially drying rivers have high watershed area, but temporary falling rivers low watershed area.  Kur river is the main water source and the artery of Azerbaijan. This river flows through the territory of Turkey, Georgia and Azerbaijan. The common watershed area of Kur river is 188 000 km. 58 000 km or 31% of this area belongs to Azerbaijan territory. After the Georgian boundary the run-off norm of Kur river is 270 m /s or 8,52 km in Girag Kesemen point. But in Kur-Salyan outfall the average annual run-off is 445 m /s or 14,04 km.
The second main river of our republic is the right tributary of Kur river – Araz river. It flows through the territory of Turkey. Also it is a transboundary river between Turkey and Azerbaijan, Turkey and Armenia, Iran and Azerbaijan. The common watershed area of Araz river is 102 000 km2, 18740 km2 or 18% of this area is in the territory of Azerbaijan.
The mean multi-annual run-off is 121 m3 /s or 3,82 km3 in the Novruzlu point (Saatli) of Araz river.
The river system of republic consists of rivers on three groups: transboundary, boundary and local rivers. Kur, Ganikh (Alazan), Gabirry (Iori)< Khrami, Arpachay and other rivers belong to transboundary rivers (flowing through the territory of two or some countries). Araz, Samur, Bolgarchay and other rivers belong to boundary river (between two or some countries). Local rivers forms and flows through the territory of republic.
According to the area of the watershed and the watery of rivers there are 2 large rivers (Kur and Araz rivers), 12 numbers of middle rivers and creeks in the republic. Only 4 of local rivers may be considered as the middle river.
In the table 1 there are presented morphometric characteristics of main rivers of republic.

River

The falling place
(which bank from)

Lengthkm

The area of watershed,km

Height condition, m

source

month

1

Kur

Caspian Sea

1515

188000

2740

-27

2

Ganikh (Alazan)

Mingechevir reservoir

413

16920

2560

75

3

Gabirri (Iori)

Mingechevir reservoir

389

4840

2560

51

4

Khramy

Kur river (right)

220

8340

2422

255

5

Aqstafachay

Kur river (right)

133

2586

3000

210

6

Kurekchay

Kur river (right)

126

2080

3100

18

7

Araz

Kur river (right)

1072

102000

2990

-11

8

Arpachay

Araz (left)

126

2630

2985

780

9

Hekeriychay

Araz (left)

128

5540

3080

268

10

Samur

Caspian Sea

216

4430

3600

-27

11

Pirsaat

Caspian Sea

199

2280

2400

-11

12

Bolgarchay

Mahmulchala lake

168

2170

1710

-17

Local rivers of republic are mountain rivers. They characterizes by the speed run-off (over the floods it consists of approximately, 3-6 m3/s) and mean deviation (15-150‰).
Every above mentioned native region is chosen by its hydrological and hydrographic peculiarities.
Mountain rivers, flowing from the south hill slope of Major Caucasus (Balakenchay, Talachay, Kurmukhchay, Kishchay, Turyanchay, Geychay, Girdmanchay and etc.) are left tributaries of Kur river, but rivers, flowing along north-east hill slope (Gusarchay, Gudyalchay, Garachay, Velvelechay and etc.) and Gobustan rivers are falling directly into the Caspian Sea.
Rivers, flowing along the north-east hill slope of Minor Caucasus (Zeyemchay, Shemkirchay, Goshgarchay, Genjechay, Kurekchay and etc.), Garabakh Range (Khachinchay, Terterchay, Gargarchay and etc.) are right tributaries of Kur river. Rivers, flowing along Zengezur Range (Nakhchivanchay, Elihjechay, Gilanchay and etc.) and south-west hill slope of Minor Caucasus (Hekerychay, Kuruchay, Kondelenchay and etc.) are left tributaries of Araz river.  Lenkoran regions rivers (Vileshchay, Lenkoranchay, Tengechay, Astarachay and etc.) falling into the Caspian Sea directly. Except of Lenkoran region’s rivers, for the water regime character of Azerbaijan rivers regarding to the river type with spring-summer flood and autumn floods. The Lenkoran rivers, water regime is characterized by two flood periods (spring, autumn).
Mudflows play especial role in republic’s rivers. They usually take place on the south hill slope of Major Caucasus, north-east and south—west hill slopes of Minor Caucasus. Severe mudflows with cloud burst, which is repeating every 5-10 year observed on  summer months and  they results in great destruction. One volume of mudflow weight in rivers of south hill slope of Major Caucasus is to 1-1?5 mln.m3 .

Göllər

In the territory of Azerbaijan Republic there observes 450 lakes, which common area is 395 km2, the area of 10 of them lake is more than 10 km2.
There observes 7 types of lakes by their descent in the republic.
1) glacier lakes (lakes on the high zones like Shahdag, Bazarduzu, Murovdag and etc.);
2) flood plain lakes (lakes, generally, situated on the flood plain part of Kur-Sarisu, Hajigabul, Mehman, Aqgol  and etc.);
3) storage dam lakes (they observes on Minor Caucasus – Geygol, Maralgol, Aqgol, Garagol and etc.);
4) lagoon lakes (these lakes are situated along the Caspian Sea – Gumushgol, Aqzibirchala and etc.);
5) karstic lakes (they are situated in Gobustan, Hajinohur, Jeyranchol);
6) land slip lakes (they are situated on the basin of Atachay, Sumgayitchay, Girdimanchay and  other rivers);
7) connate lakes (they are situated on the Absheron peninsula – for example, Masazir, Boyukshopr,  Kurdakhan, Kanligol and etc.).
The largest lake of republic is Sarisu lake in Kur-Araz lowland (the area of water surface is 65,7 km2 , the volume is 59,1 mln.m3 ). Tufangol (its area is 0,01  km2, volume 0,11 mln.m3) is on the basin of Demiraparan and on the height of 3277 m. It is highest mountain lake in republic.
In Azerbaijan one of lakes with the beautiful vision is famous Geygol. This lake has been formed on the mean stream of Aqsuchay in result of heavy earthquake in 1139 y.
Morphometric characteristics of main lakes of republic are presented in the table 2.

Lake

Place, region

Area, km2

Volume, mln. m3

1

Sarisu

Kur-Araz low-land

65,7

59,1

2

Aqzibirchala

Shabran region

13,8

10,0

3

Geygol

Kurekchay’s basin

0,79

24,0

4

Hajigabul

Kur-Araz low-land

8,4

12,1

5

Boyuk Shor

Absheron peninsula

16,2

27,5

6

Aqgol

Kur-Araz low-land

56,2

44,7

7

Jandargol

Georgian boundary

10,6

51,0

8

Boyuk Alagol

Garabakh volcanic plain

5,1

24,3

9

Ashig Gara

Hekerychay’s basin

1,76

10,2

10

Garachuq

Nakhchivanchay’s basin

0,45

2,53

RESERVOIRS

In Azerbaijan there are 61 reservoirs, the volume of each of them is more than 1 mln.m3. The sum volume of reservoirs consists of 21,5 km3. They have been created on the river channel (channel reservoirs) and on the bout-skirts of them (reservoirs, the out-skirts of channel). A majority of reservoirs are regulated by seasons and they are used for irrigation. Reservoirs, created on Kur, Araz and Terterchay rivers and HES (Shemkir, Mingechevir,  Yenikend, Varvara, Araz and Serseng) are complex water management objects and they are used for energetic, irrigation, water supply and other fields.
The biggest reservoir of republic is Mingechevir. It is exploited since 1953. It works in multiyear regulation regime. Kur river’s run-off is completely regulated on its lower reach, and submergence events are prevented.
In the table 3 there are presented morphometric characteristics of republic’s main reservoirs.

Reservoir

Area, km2

Volume, km3

1.

Mingechevir

605

15.73

2.

Shemkir

116

2.68

3.

Yenikend

23.2

1.58

4.

Varvara

22.5

0.06

5.

Araz

145

1.254

6.

Serseng

14.2

0.565

7.

Jeyranbatan

13.9

0.186

8.

Khanbulanchay

24.6

0.052

9.

Sirab

1.54

0.013

10.

Aqstafachay

6.30

0.12

11.

Khacinchay

1.76

0.023

HYDROLOGICAL OBSERVATION NETWORK

 

There are 93 hydrological points in the stationary hydrological observation network of National Hydrometeorological Department in republic’s water objects – rivers, lakes and reservoirs. In these points according to the percent there observes the condition of water objects, the level and the temperature of water, the water discharge, the waving of the water and other elements of water regime.
All of these works are held on the base of Decree of Azerbaijan Republic’s Minister’s Cabinet on “The registration and the consumption of state waters” and the appropriate statute.
In the water objects the condition schedule of hydrological points are added. The vision of points and measuring works held in there are showed by photos.

   
Kur river - the vision of level-gage sections in Girag-Kesemen hydrological point.

 

Kur river - the vision of river’s left bank from hydrological hammock in Girag-Kesemen hydrological point.

   

Kur river - the preparation to the measuring of water discharge in two-cable hydrological hammock in Girag-Kesemen hydrological point

Kur river - the preparation to the measuring of water discharge in transitional hydrological hammock in Girag-Kesemen hydrological point.

   

The fully vision of Kur river and record mechanism in Zerdab hydrological point.

 The level-gage section (new) in Salyan point of Kur river.

   
The measuring of water discharge by the boat in Salyan point of Kur river.

The holding of the leveling in Banke point of Kur river.

   
The measuring of level in leveling sections in Banke point of Kur river.

 

The fully vision of Novruz point in Araz river.

   
Genjechay - the vision of Alakhanly hydrology point. Destefurchay – the holding of measuring works in Garagullar hydrology point.

STATE WATER CADASTRE

Observation information, received from hydrological points of National Hydrometeorological Department (NHD) are systemizing by the related structures of NHD and preparing in the view of State Water Cadastre (SWC). SWC is held according to The Decree of Azerbaijan Republic’s Minister’s Cabinet on “Rules of State Water Cadastre” and to the Statute. On the base of that Decree the holding of SWC by the department of “Surface waters” has been empowered to the NHD. The multiyear observation information of water objects gathered in SWC makes possible to calculate surface water resources in the territory of Azerbaijan.

SURFACE WATER RESOURCES OF AZERBAIJAN REPUBLIC

In Azerbaijan the source of water resources consists of rivers, lakes, reservoirs and etc. The base resource of surface water has been collected in rivers. The water resource of Azerbaijan rivers has been formed for local and trans rivers. Generally, the run-off of local rivers forms in the territory of Azerbaijan Republic and they commonly run-off through its territory. The base run-off of trans rivers forms in the out of the territory of republic, in the foreign countries. There are 21 trans river in the republic and the majority of them belongs to the basin of Kur and Araz rivers.
The water resource of Azerbaijan’s rivers has been assessed separately for main rivers – Kur and Araz  rivers and commonly, for the territory of republic.
Basins of Kur and Araz rivers are accordingly situated in the territory of four or five countries.
For different assessments the water resource of Kur river basin (with Araz river) varies between 25.9 – 26.9 km3. The run-off coming into the territory of our republic from the foreign (neighbor) countries consists of 19.6 – 20.8 km3 and 76-77% of total water resources. The run-off formed in the territory of republic (local run-off) is 5.64 – 7.34 km3
The water resource of Kur river (except of Araz river) in the watershed with the area of 86000 km2 consists of 16-17.8 km3, the run-off coming from neighbor countries consists of 11.7-12.7 km3 or 70-71%, but local run-off is 4.50- 6.02 km3.
The water resource of Araz river in the watershed with the area of 102000 km2 consists of 9.10-9.30 km3, the run-off coming from neighbor countries consists of 7.70-8.10 km3 or 85-87%, but local run-off is 1.04- 1.40 km3.
The water resources of rivers falling into Caspian Sea  commonly, is 2.17-3.41 km3, the run-off coming from neighbor countries is 0.14 km3, local run-off consists of 2.17-3.27 km3.
For different assessments the water resource of Azerbaijan’s rivers consists of 28.1 -30.3 km3. The run-off coming from neighbor countries into the territory of republic consists of 19.7 – 20.3 km3 or 67-70%.
The run-off volume forming oh the territory of republic consists of 7.81-10.6 km3. So, the fun-off coming from neighbor countries is 2.0-2.5 times more than local run-off.
There observes the water deficiency in Azerbaijan. It is possible to show it by the water exceedance probability for 1 km2. The exceedance probability of the territory of republic by the local run-off consists of 90-122 thousand m3/year. If to take in attention the run-off from foreign countries then the provision of republic with local run-off commonly will consist of 324-350 m3/year.
In the republic the fresh water resource of lakes consists of 0.90 km3, but the area of lake’s water surface is 394 km2.
The total volume of reservoirs of republic consists of 21.4 km3, working volume – 12.4 km3, but the area of water surface is 694 km2.