Thermal waters


Scientific and practical researches are conducted in most of the developed countries on settlement of problems of utilization of solar, wind and subsoil thermal waters energy. Subsoil heat energy accumulator and high heat energy capacity features of thermal waters characterize them as especially significant energy transporter amongst non-traditional energy sources. Geological-research works were carried out in Talish zone (Astara, Lankaran, and Masalli regions) for exploration of thermal waters in 1964-1970 in Azerbaijan. 17 exploration wells were drilled and with this purpose thermal waters were revealed under the temperature of 38-64°C. 10 greenhouses were established during the year for cultivation of early vegetables (tomato, cucumber) during winter months for the purpose of utilizations of them as heat energy and possibility of twofold-threefold output obtainment was defined. Thermal waters were opened in oil exploration wells with the depth of 3200-4500 m in Jarli structure. Their total output was 2500 m3, under the temperature of 72-97°C on Earth surface. 
Thermal waters with the total output of more than 30000 m3/day under the temperature of 50-81°C on Earth were discovered via exploration wells with the depth of up to 3000 m of the Caspian zone (Khudat-Khachmaz). Khudat-Khachmaz thermal waters deposit revealed in Quba-Khachmaz zone was explored and registered in the State Balance through confirmation of exploitation reserves in the amount of 25,7 thousand m3/day. In spite of large scale dissemination of thermal waters in the territory of the Republic, it is considered unsatisfactory to use them in various spheres of economy. Currently geological-exploration wells drilled for thermal waters in Khachmaz region are partly used for the purpose of treatment and household-public utilities. Prognostic utilization reserves of thermal waters within the Republic are assessed as follows:

  • Southern slope of Major Caucasus - 2000 m3/day (t-30-50°C);
  • Quba-Khachmaz zone - 21000 m3/day (t-40-85°C);
  • Absheron peninsula - 20000 m3/day (t-40-90°C);
  • Mountainous portion of Minor Caucasus - 4000-5000 m3/day (t-30-74°C);
  • Nakhichevan AR - 3000 m3/day (t-40-50°C);
  • Mountainous part of Talish - 15000 m3/day (t-31-43°C);
  • Lankaran plain - 7000-8000 m3/day (t-44-64°C);
  • Kura concavity - 170000 m3/day (t-30-71°C);
  • Within the Republic - 249000 m3/day.

Analysis of geological materials of thermal water deposits indicates that, utilization reserves of thermal waters in total are substantially more than the abovementioned figures. Complex exploration of thermal waters as ecologically pure energy sources alongside other fuel means (mostly oil, gas) and giving them to the service of people assume great importance. 
Currently particular researches are conducted by the National Geological Exploration Service with the purpose of determination of utilization directives of thermal waters revealed in the area of the Republic.